Reference: Salīm, ʿAmr ʿAbul-Muniʿim (2006), al-Masāʾil al-ʿIlmiyyah wa al-Fatāwā al-Sharʿiyyah Fatāwā al-Shaykh al-ʿAllāmah Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī fī al-Madīnah wa al-Imārāt, First Edition. Ṭanṭā: Dār al-Ḍiyāʾ.
Question: “Is it permissible for the menstruating woman to enter the masjid?”
Response: “That is permissible for her based on a negative evidence and a positive one:
As for the negative evidence: it is the absence of the existence of evidence preventing her from entering the masjid and this conforms to the fundamental maxim which says: “The basis of everything is permissibility” and preventing something requires a specific evidence.
There is absolutely no sound ḥadīth regarding preventing the menstruating woman from entering the masjid.
As for the positive evidence: it is the ḥadīth of ʿĀʾishah in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī from the ḥadīth of Jābir b. ʿAbdillāh al-Anṣārī that when she menstruated in the Farewell Ḥajj and the Prophet alighted at a place close to Makkah called Sarf, when the Messenger entered upon her he found her crying so he said to her: “What is the matter? Are you menstruating?” He said: “This is a matter Allāh has decreed for the daughters of Ādam so do what a pilgrim does except do not perform ṭawāf nor pray.”
So this is a text that it is permissible for a menstruating woman to enter the masjid, rather the Sacred Masjid. That is because the Prophet permitted her to do what the pilgrim does in terms of entering the masjid, ṭawāf and praying, all of which the pilgrim does but as for her: he made an exception to what the pilgrim does which is that she does not perform the ṭawāf nor does she pray.
The menstruating woman therefore can enter the masjid and read the Muṣḥaf and whoever claims contrary to that must establish the prohibiting evidence and establish and confirm that this prohibition came after this permissibility.