Correct methodology with regard to advising the Rulers

Correct methodology with regard to advising the Rulers

by | Nov 8, 2021 | Fatāwā, Manhaj, Social Issues | 0 comments

Correct methodology with regard to advising the Rulers

 

Imam Al-Nawawi’s Riyad-us-Saliheen

Chapter 78

Obligation of Rulers to show Kindness to their Subjects

Allah, the Exalted, says:

 

“And be kind and humble to the believers who follow you.” (26:215)

 

“Verily, Allah enjoins Al-`Adl (justice) and Al-Ihsan (performing duties in a perfect manner), and giving (help) to kith and kin, and forbids Al-Fahsha’ evil deeds and Al-Munkar (all that is prohibited) and Al-Baghy (oppression). He admonishes you, that you may take heed.” (16:90)

 

  1. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying, “All of you are guardians and are responsible for your wards. The ruler is a guardian and responsible for his subjects; the man is a guardian and responsible for his family; the woman is a guardian and is responsible for her husbands house and his offspring; and so all of you are guardians and are responsible for your wards.”

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

 

  1. Abu Ya`la Ma`qil bin Yasar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Any slave whom Allah makes him in charge of subjects and he dies while he is not sincere to them, Allah will make Jannah unlawful for him.”

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

 

Another narration is: Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “He who does not look after his subjects with goodwill and sincerity, will be deprived of the fragrance of Jannah.”

 

A narration in Muslim is: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “A ruler who, having control over the affairs of the Muslims, does not strive diligently for their betterment and does not serve them sincerely, will not enter Jannah with them.”

 

  1. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: I heard the the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) supplicating in my house: “O Allah! Treat harshly those who rule over my Ummah with harshness, and treat gently those who rule over my Ummah with gentleness.”

[Muslim].

 

  1. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The Banu Isra’il were ruled by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him. There will be no Prophet after me. Caliphs will come after me, and they will be many.” The Companions said: “O Messenger of Allah, what do you command us to do?” He said, “Fulfill the pledge of allegiance to which is sworn first (then swear allegiance to the others). Concede to them their due rights and ask Allah that which is due to you. Allah will call them to account in respect of the subjects whom He had entrusted to them.”

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

 

  1. `Aidh bin `Amr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I visited `Ubaidullah bin Ziyad and said to him: “Dear son, I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying, `The worst of rulers are those who treat their subjects harshly. Beware, lest you should be one of them.”’

[Al-Bukhari].

 

  1. Abu Maryam Al-Azdi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I said to Mu`awiyah (bin Abu Sufyan) (May Allah be pleased with them): I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying, “If Allah invests to someone the affairs of the Muslims and he (i.e., the ruler) ignores their rights, denies their access to him and neglects their needs, Allah will not answer his prayer or realize his hopes and will act towards him with indifference on the Day of Resurrection.” So Mu`awiyah appointed a person to keep a vigil on the necessities of the people and to fulfill them.

[Abu Dawud and  At-Tirmidhi].

 

 

 

Imam Al-Nawawi’s Riyad-us-Saliheen

Chapter 79

The Just Ruler

Allah, the Exalted, says:

 

“Verily, Allah enjoins Al-`Adl (justice) and Al-Ihsan (performing duties in a perfect manner).” (16:90)

 

“And be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are the equitable.” (49:9)

 

  1. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Seven are (the persons) whom Allah will give protection with His Shade* on the Day when there will be no shade except His Shade (i.e., on the Day of Resurrection), and they are: A just ruler; a youth who grew up with the worship of Allah; a person whose heart is attached to the mosque; two persons who love and meet each other and depart from each other for the sake of Allah; a man whom a beautiful and high ranking woman seduces (for illicit relation), but he (rejects this offer by saying): `I fear Allah’; a person who gives a charity and conceals it (to such an extent) that the left hand might not know what the right has given; and a person who remembers Allah in solitude and his eyes well up.”

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

 

* The Shade of Allah to which this Hadith refers to is the shade of His Throne.

 

  1. `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`as (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The just will be seated upon pulpits of light.” Those who are fair with regards to their judgement and their family and those who are under them.”

[Muslim].

 

  1. `Auf bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, and those who supplicate Allah in your favour and you supplicate Allah in their favour. The worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you; and whom you curse and who curse you.” It was asked (by those who were present): “Should not we oppose them?” He said, “No, as long as they establish Salat; as long as they establish Salat in your midst.”

[Muslim].

 

  1. `Iyad bin Himar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The people of Jannah will be of three kinds: A just successful ruler, a man who shows mercy to his relatives, and a pious believer who has a large family and refrains from begging.”

[Muslim].

 

 

Imaam al-Barbahaaree said:

 

“And that we do not contend with or attempt to take away the command from those assigned with it (i.e., the rulers) due to the saying of the Messenger: “There are three things towards which the heart of a Muslim never shows hatred or rancour:

 

 

  1. Making ones action sincerely for the sake of Allaah,
  2. Giving obedience to the rulers (wulatul-amr) and

 

  1. Sticking to the group (jamaa’ah) for verily, their supplication encompasses those who are behind them (i.e. those whom they rule over).” [2]

 

This is confirmed in His saying:

 

“O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger, and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority”. [an-Nisaa (4):59]

 

And that the sword is not to be raised against (any of) the Ummah of Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam).

 

And al-Fudayl said, “If I had a supplication that would be answered, I would not make it except for the leader (imaam) because when the leader becomes righteous, the towns and servants become safe and secure.”

 

Ibn al-Mubaarak said (in reference to the above saying of al-Fudayl), “O teacher of goodness, who would show boldness towards this besides you?”

 

[End of the words of Bukhaaree]

 

Imaam al-Barbahaaree (d. 329H) also said, “Whoever rebels against a Muslim ruler is one of the Khawaarij, has caused dissent within the Muslims, has contradicted the narrations and has died the death of the days of ignorance.” (Sharhus-Sunnah [p.42])

 

The Khawaarij are a group who first appeared in the time of ‘Alee. They split from his army and began the grave innovation of takfeer (declaring Muslims, rulers or the ruled, in their view guilty of major sins, to be unbelievers). The Prophet s warned against them in many authentic ahaadeeth, “They are the dogs of Hellfire” [3].

 

He also informed us that they would continue to appear until the end of this world, saying, “A group will appear reciting the Qur’aan, it will not pass beyond their throats, every time a group appears it will be cut off, until the Dajjaal appears within them.” [4]

 

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree (d.329H) also said, “It is not permissible to fight the ruler or rebel against him even if he oppresses. This is due to the saying of the Messenger of Allaah to Aboo Dharr al-Ghifaaree, “Have patience even if he is an Abyssinian slave,” [5] and his saying to the Ansaar, “Have patience until you meet me at the Pool,” (reported by Bukharee from Usayd ibn Hudayr). There is no fighting against the ruler in the Sunnah. It causes destruction of the Religion and the worldy affairs.” Sharh-us-Sunnah, (p. 43).

 

Abu Bakr al-Aajurree (d.360H) said in ash-Sharee’ah (p. 28),

 

“It is not fitting for the one who sees the uprising of a khaarijee who has revolted against the Imaam, whether he is just or oppressive – so this person has revolted and gathered a group behind him, has pulled out his sword and has made lawful the killing of Muslims – it is not fitting for the one who sees this, that he becomes deceived by this person’s recitation of the Qur’aan, the length of his standing in the prayer, nor his constant fasting or his good and excellent words in knowledge when (it is clear to him that) this person’s way and methodology (madhhab) is that of the Khawaarij.”

 

Shaikh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said:

 

So in general, Ahul us Sunnah (the people of the Sunnah) expend their efforts in obedience to Allaah and His Messenger in accordance to ability. This is just as Allah The Most High has said:

 

{فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ}

 

((So fear Allaah as much as you are able)) (At-Taghaabun: 16)

 

 

 

Likewise the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

 

((If I command you with an affair, then perform it as much as you are able))[1]

 

 

 

They know that Allaah, The Most High sent Muhammad (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) with the harmonious welfare of the servants in means of subsistence as well as for The Hereafter. He ordered enjoining rectification and prohibited corruption, thus if an action contains in it rectification as well as corruption then they give precedence to the favourable of the two. Yet if the rectification of it is more than the corruption of it, then they give precedence of carrying it out. Whilst if the corruption within it is greater than the rectification then they give precedence to its abandonment.

 

Indeed Allaah, The Most High sent His Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) with the attainment of harmonious welfare as well as its accomplishment. Along with suspension of corruptions and limiting them, accordingly, if a Khaleefah from the Khulafaa comes to rule such as Yazeed and ‘Abdul-Malik and Mansoor and other than them, then either it is said:

 

That it is obligatory to prevent him from taking power and he must be fought against until other than him is put in place – as is done by those that perceive the sword – then this opinion is corrupt. For the harms of this are greater than their benefits, and scarce are the examples of those that rebelled against a ruler in authority except that they begot from their action an evil greater by far than any good they produced. Such as the like of those that rebelled against Yazeed in Al-Madeenah, and the like of Ibn Al-Ash’ath who rebelled against ‘Abdul-Maalik in ‘Iraq and the likes of these.[2]

 

The goal of such a people is either to become dominated or to dominate, and then their dominance disappears – in consequence they have no real outcome.

 

For ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Ali and Aboo Muslim were two individuals who committed killings in great numbers, and both of them were killed by Aboo Ja’far Al-Mansoor.

 

As for the people of Al-Harrah and Ibn Al-Ash’ath and Ibn Al-Mahlab and other than them, then they were defeated as were their associates. Therefore they never instituted religion nor did they leave behind anything of worldly effect – and Allaah, The Most High does not command with a command through which the harmonious welfare of the religion and worldliness are not attained.

 

Al-Hasan Al-Basree used to say: ‘Indeed Al-Hajjaaj is a punishment from Allaah, so do not attempt to repel the punishment of Allaah with your hands. However, upon you be humbleness and imploring (i.e. supplication), for indeed Allaah The Most High says:

 

{وَلَقَدْ أَخَذْنَاهُم بِالْعَذَابِ فَمَا اسْتَكَانُوا لِرَبِّهِمْ وَمَا يَتَضَرَّعُونَ}

 

((And indeed We seized them with punishment, but they did not humble themselves to their Lord, nor did they invoke [Allaah]))’ (Al-Mu’minoon: 76)

 

 

 

The virtuous of the Muslims used to prohibit rebellions and killing at times of fitnah (tribulation). Just as ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar and Sa’eed bin Al-Mussayyib and ‘Ali bin Al-Hussain and other than them used to prohibit the masses of Al-Harrah from rebelling against Yazeed. Just as Al-Hasan Al-Basree and Mujaahid and other than them would prohibit rebellion in the fitnah of Ibn Al-Ash’ath. For this reason the affair of the people of the Sunnah prevailed upon abandoning fighting in times of fitnah due to the authentic ahaadeeth which are established from the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and they would cite this in their beliefs and command with exercising patience upon the tyranny of the rulers and to abandon fighting them. Even though a great number of the people of religion and knowledge fought during times of tribulation.

 

For whosoever is attentive to the authentically established ahaadeeth of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), in this aspect, and takes into consideration the view point of those possessing insight, then he comes to know that what the Prophetic texts present is the best ordinance.

 

All of this is from that which makes clear that what the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) commanded by way of patience upon the tyranny of the rulers and to refrain from fighting and rebelling against them is the most correct and beneficial of affairs for the servants by means of their subsistence as well as for The Hereafter. In addition, whosoever contradicts that – whether deliberately or mistakenly will not achieve by his action any rectitude, rather it attains corruption and it is due to this that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) bestowed praise upon Al-Hasan with his statement:

 

((Indeed this son of mine is noble, and Allaah will bring about reconciliation by way of him between two mighty groups of the Muslims))[3]

 

 

 

He did not praise anyone else, not in fighting during fitnah (in times of tribulation) and nor in rebelling against the rulers and nor in withdrawing ones hand from obedience, and not in separating from the Jamaa’ah (the main body of the Muslims).[4]

 

 

 

(Abridged from: Minhaaj us-Sunnah An-Nabawiyyah vol 4 p.527-531)

 

______________________________________

 

[1] Part of a hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.7288). It is also reported by Muslim (no.3244) despite there being a difference in the overall wording of the hadeeth, this portion of the hadeeth is similar in wording to that which is found in Al-Bukhaaree.

 

[2] Al-‘Allaamah ‘Abdur-Rahmaan Al-Mu’allimee (rahimahullaah) said: “The Muslims have indeed tried their hand at rebellions – in consequence they saw nothing from it except evil. The people rebelled against ‘Uthmaan seeing that they desired the truth, then the people of Al-Jamal set out, their heads and notables saw that they were seeking the truth. Consequently the fruits of that after much ado – was the subsequent cessation of the Khilaafah An-Nubuwwah; and so Ummayad administration was established. Then Al-Hussain bin ‘Ali was compelled into that which he was coerced to, thus transpired that tragedy. Then the people of Al-Madeenah rose-up  and thus occurred Al-Harrah, then the reciters rose-up along with Ibn Al-Ash‘ath – then what happened?!” (See: At-Tankeel vol 1 p.94)

 

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.2704) and Aboo Dawood (no.4662) and others. The wording as is found in Al-Bukhaaree is:

 

((Indeed this son of mine is noble, and perhaps Allaah will bring about reconciliation by way of him between two mighty groups of the Muslims))

 

 

 

[4] Point of benefit: Shaikh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah mentioned as is found in Majmu’ Fatawa vol 4 p.467: “So the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made the commendation upon his son Al-Hasan as well as praising him over the fact that Allaah, The Most High reconciled by way of him two mighty groups from the Muslims. That was when he surrendered the affair to Mu’aawiyah; and both of them had traversed to the other with mighty armies. Since the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) praised Al-Hasan for reconciliation and the abandonment of fighting; this is proof that the reconciliation between those two groups was more beloved to Allaah, The Most High than his action. It is proof also that fighting/killing is not what he was commanded with ; and had Mu’aawiyah been a disbeliever; then the Rulership could not have been given to a disbeliever as well the subsequent surrender of authority to him having been from that which Allaah and His Messenger love. Rather the hadeeth is proof that Mu’aawiyah and his companions were believers, just as Al-Hasan and his companions were believers; and that which Al-Hasan carried out was praiseworthy with Allaah, The Most High – beloved and pleasing to Him as well as to His Messenger.”

 

 

 

 

 

And Ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H) said in Miftaah Daaris-Sa’aadah (1/119), “And as for Imaam Maalik, then Ibn al-Qaasim said, “I heard Maalik say, “Indeed there are a people who desire worship but squander the knowledge (being deprived of it) so they revolt against the Ummah of Muhammad with their swords. And if they had followed the knowledge, then it would have prevented them from doing that.”

 

It is authentically reported from the Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) in the hadeeth of ‘Iyaad ibn Ghunum who said, “The Messenger of Allaah s said, “Whoever desires to advise the one with authority then he should not do so openly, rather he should take him by the hand and take him into seclusion (and then advise him). And if he accepts (the advice) from him then (he has achieved his objective) and if not, then he has fulfilled that which was a duty upon him.” [7] Reported by Ahmad (3/403) and Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (2/521) with a saheeh isnaad.

 

And it is also related by Ibn Sa’ad in Tabaqaatul-Kubraa (7/163-165): A group of Muslims came to al-Hasan al-Basree (d.110H) seeking a verdict to rebel against al-Hajjaaj [8]. So they said, “O Aboo Sa’eed! What do you say about fighting this oppressor who has unlawfully spilt blood and unlawfully taken wealth and did this and that?” So al-Hasan said, “I hold that he should not be fought. If this is the punishment from Allah, then you will not be able to remove it with your swords. If this is a trial from Allaah, then be patient until Allaah’s judgment comes, and He is the best of judges.” So they left al-Hasan, disagreed with him and rebelled against al-Hajjaaj – so al-Hajjaaj killed them all. [9]

 

About them al-Hasan used to say, “If the people had patience, when they were being tested by their unjust ruler, it will not be long before Allaah will give them a way out. However, they always rush for their swords, so they are left to their swords. By Allaah! Not even for a single day did they bring about any good.”

 

NOTES

 

  1. Taken from “The Creed of Imaam al-Bukhaaree” Published by Salafi Publications. Translated by Dawud Burbank and Amjad Rafiq.

 

  1. This hadeeth has been reported from a group among the Companions and see Sunan at-Tirmidhee (no. 2657), al-Musnad (4/80, 82 183), ‘Jami’ ul-Usool (1/265) and Majma’uz-Zuwaa’id (1/137-139).

 

  1. Reported from Ahmad and it is saheeh

 

  1. Reported from Ibn Maajah and it is hasan.

 

  1. Reported from Muslim

 

  1. When changing the evil of the rulers, then this should be done by the scholars and not openly as is mentioned by a clear hadeeth of the Prophet, “When you wish to correct the sultan then take him by the hand in secret and advise him.” [Aquidah at-Tahawiyah]

 

  1. He was ath-Thaqafee, and is well known. Adh-Dhahabee said in Siyar A’laam in-Nubalaa (4/343) at the end of his biography, “We revile him and do not love him, rather we hate him for Allaah. He had some some good deed, but they are drowned in the ocean of his sins, and his affair is for Allaah!”

 

 

 

Scholar: Imâm ´Abdul-´Azîz bin ´Abdillâh bin Bâz

Source: sahab.net/forums/index.php?showtopic=127­880

Reference: Darulhadith.com

aFatwa.com

 

Question: Does it belong to the methodology of the Salaf to condemn the leaders, mention their errors and backbite them from the pulpits? How does one advise the rulers according to the methodology of the Salaf? How should it occur?

 

Shaykh Ibn Bâz: This question has been posed several times. It does not belong to the methodology of the Salaf to mention the shortcomings of the rulers from the pulpits. It leads to revolts and that people refrain from hearing and obeying in that which is allowed. It leads to something that only harms and benefits nothing.

 

Salaf’s followed methodology is to advise him in seclusion, write to him and let the scholars contact him so that they can lead him to that which is good.

 

The sins should be mentioned without the mentioning of the sinner. Fornication, spirits and interest [all of these] should be condemned without condemning the one who falls into them. It is enough that one condemns the sins and warns against them without mentioning the sinner, regardless if he is the ruler or anybody else.

 

When the tribulation of ‘Uthmân’s (radhiya Allâhu ‘anh) time broke out, some people said to Usâmah bin Zayd (radhiya Allâhu ‘anh):

 

“Will you not condemn ‘Uthmân?”

 

He answered:

 

“Should I condemn him amongst the people? I will condemn him in seclusion without opening the gate of evil to the people.”

 

When they initiated the evilness in the time of ‘Uthmân (radhiya Allâhu ‘anh) and condemned him publicly, the tribulation, battles and corruption became a fact. To this day one finds traces of all that. It led to the Fitnah between ‘Alî and Mu’âwiyah. ‘Uthmân and ‘Alî were killed because of it. Many companions and others were killed because of the public condemnation. As a result, the people started hating their ruler and killed him.

 

Sheikh Ibn Baaz (RH) was asked:

There are those who hold that the perpetration of major sins by the rulers obligates revolting against them, and endeavoring to remove them, even if this causes some harm to the Muslims in the country. And recent occurrences like this have started to happen in places within our Islamic world, so what is your opinion – O noble Shaykh – concerning this?

 

Whosoever sees something from his leader of sin, then let him hate whatever occurs from sin. And let him not remove his hand from obedience, since whoever removes his hand from disobedience and splits off from the Jamaa’ah (united body), then he dies the death of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaamic times of ignorance).’’ 1

 

And the Prophet said: ‘‘The person must obey in whatever he loves, and in whatever he hates, in ease and in hardship, in willingness and un-willingness; except if he is commanded to disobey Allaah. So if he is commanded to disobey Allaah, then he should not listen, not should he obey.’’2

 

And the Companions asked him: O Messenger of Allaah! When you mentioned that there will be rulers, ‘you will approve of some things from them, and disapprove of others things.’ They said: So what do you command us to do? He said: ‘‘Give them their right, and invoke Allaah, since He is with you.’’ ’Ubaadah (r ) said: ‘‘We gave the oath of allegiance to the Messenger of Allaah that we would not oppose the command, not its people.’’ He said: ‘‘Except if you were to see clear disbelief (kurfan bawaahan) about which you have a proof from Allaah.’’ 3

 

Rather, it is obligatory to avert the evil by removing it. As for averting the evil with a greater evil, then that is not permissible by consensus of the Muslims. So if this group which wishes to remove the ruler who has committed clear disbelief, has the power to remove him, and to replace him with a good righteous leader, without bringing about that which is a greater evil and corruption upon the Muslims, and a greater evil than this ruler, then there is no problem. And for if this revolting will bring about a greater corruption, and betraying the trust, and oppression upon the people, and murdering those who do not deserve it, and great evils other than this, then it is not permissible.4

 

1.Related by al-Bukhaaree (13/5) and Muslim (no. 1849)

2.Related by al-Bukhaaree (4/203)

3.Related by Muslim (6/17)

4.Imaam Aboo Bark al-Aajurree (d.360H) – rahimahullaah – said: ‘‘It is not permissible for the one who sees the uprising of a khaarijee who has revolted against the leader, whether he is just or oppressive – so this person has revolted and gathered a group behind him, has pulled out his sword and has made lawful the killing of Muslims – it is not fitting for the one who sees this, that he becomes deceived by this person’s recitation of the Qur‘aan, the length of his standing in Prayer, nor his constant fasting, nor his good and excellent words in knowledge when it is clear to him that this person’s way and methodology is that of the Khawaarij.” Refer to the book ash-Sharee’ah (p. 28)

 

 

 

 

Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen said:

‘Be aware of Allaah regarding the understanding of the Manhaj (methodology) of as-Salaf as-Salih in dealing with the ruler, and not to take the mistakes of the ruler as a means to hyping and influencing the people and to turn the hearts away from those placed in authority.

This is certain evil and corruption. It is one of the foundations whereby al-Fitnah (trials & tribulations) occur between the people.’

[‘Haqooq ar-Ra’aee wa Ra’aeeyah’p.29]

 

 

 

Beneficial Answers to Questions on Innovated Methodologies by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan Hafithahullaah. (Beneficial footnotes by Jamaal bin Fareehan Al-Harithee). Pg. 51-55

 

Question :

 

What is the correct methodology for advising, particularly with regard to advising the rulers? Is it by publicising their evil actions from their evil actions from the mimbars or by advising them in private? I would like to know what the correct methodology is concerning this matter?

 

Answer

 

Infallibility is not for anyone except Allaah’s Messenger . Rulers are humans and they make errors. So no doubt they have errors and mistakes, as they are not infallible. But do not make their errors a reason for you to publicise them and remove yourself from obeying them, even if they may be oppressive and unjust  ,and even if they may be sinful, so long as they do not commit clear disbelief. This is that the Prophet commanded us.

 

Quote:

This is the Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah with respect to the Muslim ruler. The author of Al-‘Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah said:“And we do not hold it permissible to rebel against our Imaams and our leaders, even if they may be oppressive. Nor do we supplicate against them or remove ourselves from obedience to them. And we hold that obeying them is part of obeying Allaah and hence an obligation so long as they do not order (us) commit sins. We supplicate to Allaah for them that He grant them rectification and pardon.”This is the same belief that the callers to truth are upon to this very day. These same words and those that bear a similar meaning to it were constantly repeated by our teacher, Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin ‘Abdillaah bin Baaz, may Allaah have mercy on him, in his classes and lectures.

Quote:

 

He is referring to the hadeeth of ‘Ubaadah bin as-Saamit (radhiyAllaahu anh) in which he said:“The Prophet summoned us and so we gave him the oath of allegiance that we would hear and obey (the leader) in matters that we liked and matters that we disliked and in things that were hard upon us and things that were easy upon us, and (that we would give him) preference over ourselves. And that we would not oppose the authority of the leader unless we notice him having open disbelief, for which you would have a clear proof from Allaah against him.”(Fath-ul-Baaree: 13/5)

Ahmad added to this in his narration:

 

“And if you believe that you have some justification in the matter (i.e. of rebelling), do no act upon this suspicion. Rather, just hear and obey until it reaches you, without removing yourself from the obedience.”

 

And there is further addition in the report of Ibn Hibbaan and Ahmad:

 

“…even if they take your wealth and beat your back.”

 

(Fath-ul-Baaree: 13/8)

 

And if they have sins and commit oppression and injustice, then indeed having patience while obeying them  keeps the unity, maintains unification of the Muslims, and protects the lands of the Muslims. Furthermore, there are great evils that result from in opposing them and seceding from them, which are greater than the evils that (may) come from them. So there will occur greater evil –

 

Quote:

The Shaykh, may Allaah preserve him, is referring to the hadeeth of the Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiyAllaahu anh) in which he narrated that the Prophet said:“Whoever sees in his leader something that he dislikes, then let him be patient with it, for indeed, whoever splits away from the Jamaa’ah (unified group) even an inch, and then dies, he does not die except the death of some in the Days of Ignorance.”(Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (7054); See Fath-ul-Baaree (13/5))And he is also referring to the hadeeth of Anas bin Maalik (radhiyAllaahu anh) in which the Prophet said:“You will indeed see things after me that you will disapprove of.”

So they said:“What do you order us to do with them, O Messenger of Allaah?”

 

He replied:“Give them (i.e. the leaders) their rights and ask Allaah for your rights.”

 

(Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (7052); See Fath-ul-Baaree (13/5) and Sunan At-Tirmidhee (2190))

 

Quote:

 

Such as the rallies and demonstrations that have appeared in some of the neighbouring countries. These demonstrations are from the practices of the disbelievers , and not from the Muslims. And it is not part of the Religion in any way. They result in the shedding of blood, the destruction of property, and that misery gained over the Sunnah and its adherents. So won’t the callers to political instigation reflect on these consequences?

– than that which comes from them in the first place, so long as this evil (on their part) is less than disbelief (Kufr) and polytheism (Shirk). We are not saying that one should remain silent at the errors that come out from the rulers. No, rather they should be corrected. But they must be corrected in a pure way, by advising them privately, and writing to them in private. By writing to them, we don’t mean that which is written down, passed through the hands of a group of individuals and then spread amongst the people. This is not permissible. Rather, a confidential letter, should be written, in which there is advice –

 

Quote:

(This is the methodology of the Salaf with regard to advising the rulers – that it be private and concealed so that there is no room for self-amazement (riyaa) to enter. And in these circumstances, it is much more likely that they (i.e. the leaders) will accept the advice and that Allaah will accept the (good) deed. We will mention some of the texts and narrations regarding this later.)

,and handed over to the ruler or read to him orally. As for a letter that is written, then photocopied, then distributed to the people, then this act is not permissible because it is publicising (his errors), and it is just like speaking against him from the mimbar. In fact, it is worse because it is possible for a person to forget a speech, but as for a written letter, it remains and passes through hands. So this is not from the truth. The Prophet said:

 

“The Religion is sincerity (advice). The Religion is sincerity (advice). The Religion is sincerity (advice).”

 

We said:

 

“To who, O Messenger of Allah?”

 

He said:

 

“To Allaah, His Book, His Messenger, the leaders of the Muslims and their common folk.”

 

(Reported by Muslim (55))

 

And in the hadeeth, it states:

“Verily Allaah is pleased with three things for you and He is displeased with three things for you. He is pleased that you (1) worship Him and not associate anything (in worship) with Him; and that (2) you hold tight onto the Rope of Allaah, all of you together, and not be divided, and that (3) you mutually advise he whom Allaah gives authority of your affairs.”

 

(Saheeh: An authentic hadeeth reported by Ahmad (2/367) and Maalik in Al-Muwatta (2/756) with the verification of ‘Abdul-Baaqee.)

 

The people most fitting and qualified to advise the rulers are the scholars, the members of legal and consultative decisions, and those responsible for making decisions and problem-solving. Allaah says:

 

When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people). But if Only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority amongst them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly).And had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allaâh upon you, You would have followed Shaitân (Satan), except for a few (from you).

(Surah an-Nisaa: 83)

 

So not everybody is fit to do this. And disseminating and publicising their errors is not from advising at all. Rather, it is from spreading evil and wickedness amongst those who believe. And it is not from the methodology of the Salaf As-Saalih, even if the intention of the one who does it may be good and pure, such as for the sake of forbidding an evil, according to his view. However, what he did is a greater evil than that which he is forbidding. Therefore, forbidding an evil may be evil in itself if it is done in a way other than what Allaah and His Messenger have legislated.

 

Quote:

Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said:“Gentleness is a way towards commanding good and forbidding evil. This is why it is said: “Let your commanding of good be good, and your forbidding of evil not evil.”And since commanding good and forbidding evil are from the greatest of obligatory and recommended acts, the benefit derived from it must always outweigh the evil… Rather, everything that Allaah commanded us with is in fact good. Allaah has praised good and the doers of good, and He has condemned evil and the doers of evil in many places (of the Qur’aan). So in the case where commanding good and forbidding evil will only bring about greater corruption, it is something that Allaah has not commanded, even if it results in a person abandoning an obligation and committing a prohibition, since the believer is only required to fear Allaah with regard to Allaah’s servants, and it is not upon him to guide.”(Al-Amr bil-Ma’roof wan-Nahee ‘anil-Munkar (pg. 19)This is since this person has not followed the legislated way of the Prophet, which he described when he said:“Whoever amongst you sees an evil, then let him change it with his hand. But if he is not able to, then with his tongue. And if he is not able to, then with his heart, and this is the weakest of Faith.”

(Reported by Muslim (49))

 

So Allaah’s Messenger divided people into three categories: Amongst them is he who able is able to terminate the evil with his hand, and he is the one in authority, such as the ruler and those entrusted with authority, such as committees, governors and leaders. The second type is the scholar who because he has no authority, forbids (evil) by explaining and advising with wisdom and fair admonition, and by advising those in authority in a wise manner. The third category consists of those who have no knowledge or authority. They should forbid the evil with their hearts, by hating it and by hating and withdrawing away from those who do it.

 

Reference: Beneficial Answers to Questions on Innovated Methodologies by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan Hafithahullaah. (Beneficial footnotes by Jamaal bin Fareehan Al-Harithee). Pg. 51-55

Blame Ourselves or Blame the Rulers – Imaam Ibnul Qayyim / Dr Saleh as Saleh

 

Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 10:04)

 

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) talked about what people think is the fitnah of “our times”, i.e. meaning his own times, but this applies just as well to the contemporary fitnah of our own times. About the ways of Allaah (Azza wa Jal) in this creation vis-a-vis the rulers and the ruled, he said :

 

“And contemplate Allaah’s (Azza wa Jal) Wisdom when He made people of authority, making them a reflection of the ruled. It is as if the deeds of the ruled appear in the form and deeds of their rulers :

 

if the ruled are upright, then their rulers will be upright

 

if the ruled incline away from uprightness, then their rulers will do the same to them

 

if the ruled transgress and oppress, then their rulers will do the same to them

 

if there appears deception and plotting from the ruled, then it will be the same from their rulers

 

if the ruled take away the rights of the people and become miser as to the rights of others, then their rulers will do the same to them and deprive them of their rights

 

if the ruled take away from the oppressed /weak among them that which they deserve not to take in their transactions with them, then their rulers will do that towards the ruled’s wealth and take what they deserve not, and impose on the ruled taxes and assignments

 

and whenever the ruled take from the oppressed and weak unjustly, then their rulers will do the same to them and take it by force

 

so the actions of the ruled appear in the actions of the rulers and it is not in the Divine Wisdom that Allaah (Azza wa Jal) assigns authority over the wicked and evils ones, EXCEPT to the ones who are of their own kind

 

Since the first generation was of the best generation and of the most righteous, … so were their leaders righteous

 

It is not befitting Allaah’s Wisdom that in “our times” (Ibnul Qayyim’s times) that those assigned to authority over us be the like of Muawwiya and ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, not to mention Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. The leaders of those before us were in accordance with their own conditions and ranks. Our leaders are in accordance with our own condition and rank. In both cases, this is entailed by the Wisdom of Allaah (Azza wa Jal).”

 

Such is the conclusion of Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullah) concerning his times, i.e. the 8th century A.H., so what do you think about our own times?

 

The Wisdom of Allaah (Azza wa Jal) pertains to His Attributes. He puts things in accordance with His Hikmah and puts them in their proper places with what fits. The Wisdom of Allaah (Azza wa Jal) has a noble and most perfect objective.

 

As for those who hasten in making these roads for “deliverance” and see getting rid of the rulers as the solution to their problems, they confuse symptoms and disease.

 

The rulers are seen as being the causes when in reality they are only the symptoms. The true illness is within the ruled. Therefore, all endeavors towards finding a solution should focus on the ruled themselves.

 

The deeds of the ruled are reflected in the deeds of the people having authority over them. When the people are not ready and are away from the deen of Allaah, who would you expect them to deserve as rulers?

 

Contemplate this very carefully!

 

Dr Saleh As-Saleh(rahimahullaah)

 

Posted from : http://understand-islam.net/site/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=110

 

 

The ruler must be obeyed in that which is good. Whether the ruler came into power by way of Islamic Baya, Democratic Election or Coup. Advice is to be given by those who are close to him from the Scholars, MPs etc. in private, not openly on TV, Social Media, Talk, Khutbah etc.

 

If an unjust ruler is to be removed, than two conditions must be met

 

1.No bloodshed to take place

2.A better ruler to take over

Otherwise it is not permissible to revolt and go against him. Rather to remain patient, make dua and those who are able to advice according to the Sunnah and Manhaj as-Salaf as-Salih.

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